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The Artist in the Machine: The World of AI-Powered Creativity

Author
Arthur I. Miller
Publisher / Label
Mit Press
Country
USA
Language
English
Publication year
2019
Type of publication
Book
Number of pages
432
ISBN
978-0262042857

Index

Contents

List of Illustrations   xiii
Preface   xvii
Introduction   xxi

I Understanding Creativity   1
   1 What Makes Us Creative?   5
   Einstein, Bach, Picasso: What Makes These People Special?   7

   2 Seven Hallmarks of Creativity and Two Marks of Genius
   1. The Need for Introspection 9 
   2. Know Your Strengths 9 
   3. Focus, Persevere, and Don't Be Afraid to Make Mistakes 10 
   4. Collaborate and Compete 11 
   5. Beg, Borrow, or Steal Great Ideas 13 
   6. Thrive on Ambiguity 15 
   7. The Need for Experience and Suffering 16 
   The Two Marks of Genius 19 I
   ntent, Imagination, and Unpredictability 23 

3 Margaret Boden's Three Types of Creativity   25
4 Unconscious Thought: The Key Ingredient   29
   The Four Stages of Creativity 30 
   The Importance of Taking Time off 31 
   Unconscious Thought and Computers 35 

5 The Birth of Artificial Intelligence   37
   The First Inklings of Computer Creativity 40 
   Computers That Mimic the Brain 42 

6 Games Computers Play   45
   Deep Blue Defeats Garry Kasparov 45 
   IBM Watson Becomes Jeopardy! Champion 48 
   AlphaGo Defeats the Reigning World Go Champion 50 

II Portrait of the Computer as an Artist   55

7 DeepDream: How Alexander Mordvintsev Excavated the 
   Computer's Hidden Layers   59
   Mike Tyka Takes the Dream Deeper 66

8 Blaise Agüera y Arcas Brings Together Artists and 
   Machine Intelligence   71
   Memo Akten Educates a Neural Network 74 

9 What Came after DeepDream?   77
   Damien Henry and a Machine That Dreams a Landscape 77 
   Mario Klingemann and His X Degrees of Separation 78 
   Angelo Semeraro's Recognition: Intertwining Past and Present 81 
   Leon Gatys's Style Transfer: Photography "In the Style Of" 83 

10 Ian Goodfellow's Generative Adversarial Networks: 
   AI Learns to Imagine   87
   Mike Tyka's Portraits of Imaginary People 90 
   Refik Anadol Creates a Dreaming Archive 92 
   Theresa Reimann-Dubbers's AI Looks at the Messiah   94
   Jake Elwes's Dreams of Latent Space 96 

11 Phillip Isola's Pix2Pix: Filling in the Picture   99
   Mario Klingemann Changes Faces with Pix2Pix    101
   Anna Ridler's Fall of the House of Usher 104 

12 Jun-Yan Zhu's CycleGAN Turns Horses into Zebras   107
   Mario Klingemann Plays with CycleGAN 110

13 Ahmed Elgammal's Creative Adversarial Networks   113
14 “But Is It Art?”: GANs Enter the Art Market   119

15 Simon Colton's The Painting Fool   123
16 Hod Lipson and Patrick Tresset's Artist Robots   129

III Machines That Make Music: Putting the “Rhythm” 
   into “Algorithm”   133
  
   17 Project Magenta: AI Creates Its Own Music   137
   18 From WaveNet and NSynth to Coconet: Adventures in 
   Music Making   145
   WaveNet: From Voice to Music 145 
   NSynth—Creating Sounds Never Heard Before 146 
   Coconet: Filling in the Gaps 147

19 François Pachet and His Computers That Improvise and 
   Compose Songs   149
   The Flow Machine   150

20 Gil Weinberg and Mason Bretan and Their Robot 
   Jazz Band   155
21 David Cope Makes Music That Is “More Bach than Bach”   163
22 “The Drunken Pint” and Other Folk Music Composed by Bob 
   Sturm and Oded Ben-Tal's AI   169
23 Rebecca Fiebrink Uses Movement to Generate Sound   175
24 Marwaread Mary Farbood Sketches Music   179
25 Eduardo Miranda and His Improvising Slime Mold   183

IV Once Upon a Time: Computers That Weave Magic with Words   187

26 The Pinocchio Effect   191
27 The Final Frontier: Computers with a Sense of Humor   193
28 AI and Poetry   201

29 Rafael Pérez y Pérez and the Problems of Creating 
   Rounded Stories   205
30 Nick Montfort Makes Poetry with Pi   211
31 Allison Parrish Sends Probes into Semantic Space   217
32 Ross Goodwin and the First AI-Scripted Movie   225
33 Sarah Harmon Uses AI to Create Illuminating Metaphors
34 Tony Veale and His Metaphor- and Story-Generating Programs
35 Hannah Davis Turns Words into Music
36 Simon Colton's Poetic Fool
V Staged by Android Lloyd Webber and Friends
37 The World's First Computer-Composed Musical: Beyond the Fence
VI Can Computers Be Creative?
38 A Glimpse of the Future?
39 What Goes On in the Computer's Brain?
40 What Drives Creativity?
41 Evaluating Creativity in Computers
42 Computers with Feelings
43 The Question of Consciousness
44 Michael Graziano: Developing Conscious Computers
45 Two Dissenting Voices
46 Can We Apply the Hallmarks of Creativity to Computers?
47 The Future
Acknowledgments
Illustration Credits
Notes
Bibliography
Index