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A Little-Known Story about a Movement, a Magazine, and the Computer's Arrival in Art: New Tendencies and Bit International, 1961--1973

Margit Rosen
Publisher / Label
The MIT Press
Publication year
Type of publication
Number of pages


Table of Contents: 
	Editorial                                           9
	bit international
	[Nove] tendencije. Computer und visuelle Forschung 
        Zagreb 1961-1973
	installation views ZKM | Karlsruhe, 2008-2009       15
	Jerko Denegri
	The Conditions and Circumstances That Preceded 
        the Mounting of the First Two New Tendencies 
        Exhibitions in Zagreb 1961-1963                     19
	Margit Rosen
	The Art of Programming: 
        The New Tendencies and the Arrival of the 
        Computer as a Means of Artistic Research            27
	Peter Weibel 
	Digital Art: Intrusion or Inclusion?                43
	Darko Fritz
	The Work of Vladimir Bonacic: A Temporary 
        Realization of the New Tendencies' Program          49

   Nove tendencije 
   Preparation                                              58

	Almir Mavignier
	Letter to Matko Mestrovic                           59
	Bozo Bek 
	Letter to Mary Bauermeister                         62
	Almir Mavignier
	Letter to Matko Mestrovic                           63
   Nove tendencije 
   Exhibition                                               64
		Matko Mestrovic
		Untitled                                    68
		Radoslav Putar 
		Untitled                                    76
		Artists' Commentaries                       82
   1962-1963 -----------------------------------------------89
   Exhibition                                               90
	Francois Morellet
	The Case for Programmed Experimental Painting       92
	Groupe de Recherche d'Art Visuel
        Nouvelle Tendance                                   94
   Arte programmata. arte cinetica, 
   opere moltiplicate, opera aperta 
   Exhibition                                               96
	Umberto Eco
        Arte Programmata                                    98
   Meeting of the Nouvelle Tendance                         102
   Oltre la pittura. Oltre la scultura. 
   Mostra di ricerche di arte visiva 
   Exhibition                                               106
	Umbro Apollonio
	Untitled                                            108
   1963-1964 -----------------------------------------------109
   nove tendencije 2
   Exhibition                                               110
	Matko Mestrovic
	Untitled                                            114
	Artists' Commentaries                               122
	Timeline                                            128
	Francois Molnar and Francois Morellet
	For a Progressive Abstract Art                      136
   Nouvelle Tendance - recherche continuelle                144
	Bulletin No. 1                                      145
   nuova tendenza 2
   Exhibition                                               148
   neue tendenzen 
   Exhibition                                               152
   1964-1965 -----------------------------------------------157
   Propositions visuelles du mouvement international 
   Nouvelle Tendance 
   Exhibition                                               158
	Karl Gerstner 
	What Is the Nouvelle Tendance?                      162
   Arte Programmata. Kinetic Art 
   Exhibition                                               174
	Bruno Munari 
	Arte Programmata                                    176
   1965 ----------------------------------------------------177
   nova tendencija 3
   Exhibition                                               178
	Editorial Board 
	Remarks                                             182
	Giulio Carlo Argan
	Art as Research                                     194
	Waldemar Cordeiro
	Semantic Concrete Art                               202
	Dimitrije Basicevic
	Actuality of Functional Art                         206
	Anonima Group
	Untitled                                            212
	Abraham A. Moles
	Cybernetics and the Work of Art                     217
	Matko Mestrovic and Radoslav Putar
	Brezovica, August 18, 1965
	Working Meeting of the Participants of NT3          229
	Francis Hewitt
	Zagreb from Michelangelo                            234
   1968  ---------------------------------------------------235
   tendencife 4 / tendencies 4 
   Preparation                                              236
	Radoslav Putar, Dimitrije Basicevic, Boris Kelemen, 
        Ivan Picelj and Bozo Bek
	nt4 program for 1968                                237
	Radoslav Putar, Dimitrije Basicevic, Boris Kelemen, 
        Ivan Picelj, Vjenceslav Richter and Bozo Bek
	Continuation of the Discussion about the Concept 
        of nt4 on December 6, 1967                          238
	Program Information 1
	tendencija 4                                        239
	Program Information 7
	tendencije 4 / tendencies 4                         240
	Waldemar Cordeiro 
	Letter to Bozo Bek                                  241
   Information exhibition accompanying the colloquy 
   tendencije 4. "Kompjuteri i vizuelna istrazivanja" 
   tendencies 4. "Computers and Visual Research" 
   Exhibition                                               242
   tendencije 4"Kompjuteri i vizuelna istrazivanja" 
   tendencies 4. "Computers and Visual Research" 
   Colloquy                                                 260
	Abraham A. Moles
	Introduction to the Colloquy                        263
	Vjenceslav Richter
	Dilemma                                             267
	Alberto Biasi
	Situation 1967                                      268
	Frieder Nake
	Reply to Alberto Biasi                              270
	Vladimir Bonacic
	Capabilities of the Computer in Visual Research     272
	Branimir Makanec
	The Role of Interaction in Artistic Expression 
        by Means of Computer                                275
	Marc Adrian
	Notes on t-4                                        277
	Jiri Valoch
	Computer. Creator or Tool?                          283
	Meeting of the t-4 Organizational Board             285
	Program Information 10 
	tendencije 4 / tendencies 4                         289
	Program Information 11 
	tendencije 4 / tendencies 4                         291

   bit international 1teorija informacija i nova estetika 
   bit international 1. the theory of information and the new 
   Magazine                                                 292
	Why bit Appears                                     294
	Max Bense
	Aesthetics and Programming                          296
	Abraham A. Moles
	Experimental Aesthetics in the New Consumer Society 300
   bit international 2kompjuteri i vizuelna istrazivanja 
   bit international 2computers and visual research 
   Magazine                                                 304
	Jerko Denegri
	A New Perspective: Computers and Visual Research    306
	Hiroshi Kawano
	The Aesthetics for Computer Art                     309
	A. Michael Noll 
	The Digital Computer as a Creative Medium           313
	Georg Nees
	Computer Graphics and Visual Complexity             320
   bit international 3. internacionalni kolokvij kompjuteri i 
   vizuelna istrazivanja, zagreb, 3-4 kolovoz 1968 
   bit international 3. international colloquy computers and 
   visual research, zagreb, august 3-4 1968 
   Magazine                                                 326
   1969 ----------------------------------------------------329
   tendencije 4. nove tendencije 4 
   tendencies 4. new tendencies 4 
   Exhibition                                               330
	tendencije 4 / tendencies 4                         335
	Radoslav Putar
	New Tendencies 4                                    336
	Almir Mavignier
	nove tendencije 1 -- A Surprising Coincidence       344
   tendencije 4. kompjuteri i vizuelna istrazivanja 
   tendencies 4. computers and visual research 
   Exhibition                                               360
	Boris Kelemen
	Computers and Visual Research                       365
	Program Information 13     
	tendencije 4 / tendencies 4                         368
	Vladimir Bonacic
	Art as a Function of Subject, Cognition, and Time   371
	Compos 68 (J. B. Bedaux, J. Clausman, A. Veen) 
	"Definitions..."                                    375
	Marc Adrian, Gottfried Schlemmer, and Horst Wegscheider 
	SYSPOT                                              378
   tendencije 4typoezija / tendencies 4. typoezija 
   Exhibition                                               402
	Typoezija                                           403
   tendencije 4. "Kompjuteri i vizuelna istrazivanja" 
   tendencies 4. "Computers and Visual Research" 
   Symposium                                                404
	Vera Horvat-Pintaric 
        Today's Research and Tomorrow's Society             407
	Martin Krampen
	Psychological Aspects of Man-Computer 
        Relations                                           411
	Umberto Eco
	Untitled                                            415
	Karl Gerstner 
	Producing Art with the Computer                     419
	G. Hyde, J Benthall, and G. Metzger 
	Zagreb Manifesto                                    421
	Gustav Metzger 
	[Untitled]                                          422
	Leonardo e Laura Mosso
	Computers and Human Research: Programming 
        and Self-Management of Form                         427
	Kurd Alsleben
	The Philosophy of Visual Research                   432
	Herbert W. Franke
	Social Aspects of Computer Art                      435
	Josef Hlavacek
	On the Interpretation of Programmed Art             438
	Gary Rice
	For ARC: Cybernetics Proposal                       442
   bit international 4. dizajn
   bit international 4. design   
   Magazine                                                 444
	Gui Bonsiepe
	Science and Design                                  446
   bit international 5/6. oslikovljena rijec. konkretna poezija 
   bit international 5/6. the word image. poesie concrete 
   Magazine                                                 452
	Zeljko Bujas
	First Croatian Literary Texts Computer-Processed    454
   1971 ----------------------------------------------------457
   "Umjetnost i kompjuteri 71" / "Art and Computers 71" 
   Colloquy                                                 458
	Jonathan Benthall 
	The Computer as a Medium                            461
	Frieder Nake
	There Should Be No Computer Art                     466
   1971-1972 -----------------------------------------------469
   bit international 7. dijalog sa strojem 
   bit international 7. dialogue with the machine 
   Magazine                                                 470
   bit international 8/9. televizija danas: televizija i kultura -- 
   jezik televizije -- eksperimenti 
   bit international 8/9. television today: television and 
   culture -- the language of television -- experiments 
   Magazine                                                 472
   1973 ----------------------------------------------------475
   tendencije 5. konstruktivna vizuelna istrazivanja. 
   kompjuterska vizuelna istrazivanja. konceptualna umjetnost 
   tendencies 5. constructive visual research. 
   computer visual research. conceptual art 
   Exhibition                                               476
	Radoslav Putar 
	t-5                                                 482
	Boris Kelemen
	Computer Visual Research                            488
        Marijan Susovski
	Conceptual Art                                      512

   tendencije 5. "Racionalno i iracionalno u vizualnim 
   istrazivanjima danas" 
   tendencies 5. "The Rational and Irrational in Visual 
   Research Today. Match of Ideas" 
   Symposium                                                520
	Oskar Beckman 
	Computer Art and the Construction of an Art 
        Computer in Terms of Experimental Computer 
        Science                                             522
	Edward Zajec
	A Proposal for an Interactive Program Exhibit       525
	Patrick Greussay
	S Expressions                                       527
   1978 ----------------------------------------------------529
   tendencije 6. "Umjetnost i drustvo" 
   tendencies 6. "Art and Society" 
   Symposium                                                530
	Galerija Suvremene Umjetnosti 
	t-6 = "Art and Society," Invitation                 531
   Appendix ------------------------------------------------533
       Susann Scholl and Margit Rosen
       The Interational Artist' Movement
       New Tendencies in Zagreb:
       A Timeline                                           534

       Participants in the New Tendencies Exhibitions       542
       Biographies and Group Chronologies                   548

       Bibliography                                         564
       Index                                                569

       Photo Credits                                        576