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Music, Sound, and Technology in America: A Documentary History of Early Phonograph, Cinema, and Radio

Author
edited by Timothy D. Taylor, Mark Katz, Tony Grajeda
Publisher / Label
Duke University Press
Country
USA
Language
English
Publication year
2012
Type of publication
Book
Number of pages
432
ISBN
978-0822349464

Index

General Introduction: Music Technologies in Everyday Life Timothy D. Taylor 1

Part I Sound Recording

Introduction Mark Katz 11

Sound Recording: Readings 29

Predictions

1 Thomas A. Edison, "The Phonograph and Its Future" (1878) 29

2 "The Phonograph," New York Times (7 November 1877) 37

3 Philip G. Hubert Jr., "What the Phonograph Will Do for Music and Music-Lovers" (May 1893) 39

The Listener and the Phonograph

Learning to Listen

4 Edison Realism Test, Broadside (c. 1916) 44

5 "Illustrated Song Machine," Talking Machine World (October 1905); "Illustrated Song Machine," Talking Machine World (November 1905) 45

6 Orlo Williams, "Times and Seasons," Gramophone (June 1923) 45

The Phonograph in Everyday Life

7 How We Gave a Phonograph Party (1899) 48

8 Jas. O'Dea, Arthur Gillespie, and Herbert Dillea, "Susan, Dear Sue (The Phonograph Song)" (1901) 52

9 Pauline Partridge, "The Home Set to Music" (November 1924) 53

10 Thomas A. Edison, Inc., questionnaire and responses (1921) 56

The Phonograph and Music Appreciation

11 Annie Pike Greenwood, "The Victor in the Rural School" (26 February 1914) 65

12 "Organize a Music Memory Contest," Talking Machine Journal (March 1919) 67

Men, Women, and Phonographs

13 Victrola advertisement, Collier's (4 October 1913) 70

14 Aeolian-Vocation advertisement, Vanity Fair (May 1916) 70

15 Gladys L. Kimmel, "Having Different Types of Women Customers" (June 1920) 71

16 Scrutator, "Where Are the Ladies?" (June 1925) 75

17 T.A.F., "Ladies and Gramophone" (August 1925) 75

18 Gladys M. Collin, "Women and the Gramophone" (October 1925) 76

19 Dorothy B. Fisher, "Women and the Phonograph" (October 1926) 77

Music and the Great War

20 "Talking Machines Are 'Essentials'" (December 1917) 78

21 Vivian Burnett, "When I Hear That Phonograph Play" (1918) 80

22 "Phonographs on the Firing Line" (19 October 1919) 81

Performers and the Phonograph

In the Recording Studio

23 "How Talking Machine Orchestras Operate" (September 1910) 84

24 Yvonne de Treville, "Making a Phonograph Record" (November 1916) 85

25 Baby Dodds, The Baby Dodds Story (1992) 88

26 Edwin McArthur, "Conducting for Record" (March 1941) 92

The Phonograph and Music Pedagogy

27 "The Effect of Mechanical Instruments upon Musical Education" (July 1916) 94

28 Oscar Saenger, The Oscar Saenger Course in Vocal Training (1916) 103

The Phonograph and the Composer

The Composer in the Machine Age

29 Henry Cowell, "Music of and for the Records" (March-April 1931) 104

30 Igor Stravinsky, An Autobiography (1936) 107

The Phonograph as a Compositional Tool

31 Carol-Bérard, "Recorded Noises-Tomorrow's Instrumentation" (January-February 1929) 110

32 Igor Stravinsky, "Meine Stellung zur Schallplatte" (March 1930) 113

Phonograph Debates

Con

33 John Philip Sousa, "The Menace of Mechanical Music" (1906) 113

34 Portland (Oregon) City Council, "An Ordinance Regulating the Use of Phonographs" (14 August 1907); Minutes of the Portland City Council (27 November 1907) 122

35 Joseph N. Weber, "Canned Music-Is It Taking the Romance from Our Lives?" (November 1930) 123

Pro

36 Paul H. Cromelin, "'The Menace of Mechanical Music'" (1906) 126

37 Anne Shaw Faulkner, "Phonographs and Player Instruments" (August 1917) 129

Part II Cinema

Introduction Tony Grajeda 137

Cinema: Readings 145

Technologies of Sight and Sound

38 "The Kineto-Phonograph" (16 June 1894) 145

39 "The Perfection of the Phono-Cinematograph" (14 September 1907) 148

40 Advertisement for Picturephone, "Singing and Talking Moving Pictures" (11 January 1908) 149

41 "The Singing and Talking Picture-What Is Its Future?" (7 May 1910) 149

42 "Talking 'Movies'" (8 March 1913) 152

Sounds of the Cinema: Illustrated Song Slides; The Role of the Voice (lecturers, actors); Incidental Musics, Special Effects, Ballyhoo, and Noise of the Audience

43 Chas. K. Harris, "Illustrating Song Slides" (9 March 1907) 153

44 Chas. K. Harris, "Song Slide Review" (16 March 1907) 156

45 H. F. Hoffman, "The Singer and the Song" (4 June 1910) 158

46 Van C. Lee, "The Value of a Lecture" (8 February 1908) 161

47 E. Esther Owen and W. M. Rhoads, "The Value of a Lecture with the Show" (22 February 1908) 163

48 Sydney Wire, "How Talking Pictures Are Made; Scarcity of Picture Actors" (22 August 1908) 164

49 W. Stephen Bush, "The Human Voice as a Factor in the Moving Picture Show" (23 January 1909) 166

50 James Clancy, "The Human Voice as a Factor in the Moving Picture Show" (30 January 1909) 169

51 "Trade Notes," "When 'Music' Is a Nuisance" (28 December 1907) 171

52 "Sound Effects: Good, Bad, and Indifferent" (2 October 1909) 172

Playing to the Pictures

Performative Accompaniment

53 Clarence E. Sinn, "Music for the Picture" (23 April 1910) 173

54 Louis Reeves Harrison, "Jackass Music" (21 January 1911) 176

55 Wm. H. McCracken, "'Jackass Music'" (28 January 1911) 180

56 Mrs. Buttery, "'Jackass Music"' (4 February 1911) 181

57 W. Stephen Bush, "Music and Sound Effects for Dante's Inferno" (27 January 1912) 182

58 L. Szeminanyi, "Playing to Pictures" (February 1921) 189

59 "A Cinema Musician," "Atmosphere" (March 1926) 190

The Organist of the Picture Palace

60 Ernest M. Skinner, "Cinema Music" (August 1918) 192

61 J. van Cleft Cooper, "Creation of Atmosphere" (June 1922) 196

Conducting and Scoring to the Movies

62 "How Music Is Made to Fit the Films" (26 January 1918) 200

63 Doron K. Antrim, "Possibilities of Movie Music-Present and Future" (15 February 1926) 202

64 Victor Wagner, "Scoring a Motion Picture" (September 1926) 205

65 Josephine Vila, "Hugo Riesenfeld Tells How He Scores a Film" (17 February 1927) 209

Taste, Culture, and Educating the Public

66 Frank A. Edson, "A Word about Suitable and Unsuitable Music in Moving Picture Productions" (March 1918) 212

67 "Choosing Picture Music That Pleases the Patrons: An Interview with Edward L. Hyman" (1 February 1926) 215

68 Dr. Sigmund Spaeth, "Why Music Is Becoming the Important Element in Picture Presentation" (15 March 1926) 217

69 Josephine Vila, "Opera Singer Gets Thrill out of Screen Debut" (20 January 1927) 221

70 L. K. Sidney, "What Modern Music Has Done to the Motion Picture Theaters" (January 1928) 223

Responding to the Talkies

71 An Interview with Joseph N. Weber, "Will Machine-Made Music Displace Real Music in Our Theaters?" (September 1928) 226

72 Warren Nolan, "Talking Pictures and the Public" (1929) 229

73 "What the Fans Think": "Talkie Gets a Guffaw" (March 1929); "Voice Censor Suggested" (March 1929); "Another Fan Deserts!" (April 1929); "Real Singers Would Go Over" (February 1932); "Carrying English to England" (February 1932); "Adores Yankee Talk" (November 1932); "Our Rural Accents" (November 1932) 233

Part III Radio

Introduction Timothy D. Taylor 239

Radio: Readings 255

Radio as Dream, Radio as Technology

74 "Distributing Music over Telephone Lines" (18 December 1909) 255

75 "Radio Telephone Experiments" (May 1910) 258

76 David Sarnoff, "Radio Music Box" (c. 1916-1920) 259

77 Bruce Bliven, "The Ether Will Now Oblige" (15 February 1922) 260

78 Joseph Riley, "Five Minutes of Radio for a Nickel" (April 1926) 265

Early Broadcasts: Performer and Listener Impressions

79 Leon Lichtenfeld, interview Layne R. Beaty (29 May 1988) 266

80 Leon Alfred Duthernoy, "Singing to Tens of Thousands; Impressions of an Artist during His First Radio Concert" (November 1922) 267

81 Helen Keller, letter to the Symphony Society of New York (10 February 1924) 271

82 George McClelland, memorandum for Mr. J. A. Holman (March 1924) 272

Radio in Everyday Life

83 "Wireless Music and News for the Roller Chair Passenger" (7 August 1920) 275

84 "Very Latest in Wireless; Union College Students Find a 'Universal Lullaby' for Babies" (11 May 1921) 276

85 "Radio Now Heard on Buses in New York City" (27 May 1922) 276

86 "Advance Seat Sale for Radio Concerts" (October 1923) 277

87 Bess B. Harris, letter to the editor (April 1924) 277

88 '"Sing Down the Cattle' by Radio" (October 1926) 279

89 "Wedding Has Radio Music" (1 January 1927) 279

Healing

90 "Maimed and Sick Forget Pain in Model Radio-Equipped Ambulance" (3 June 1922) 279

91 Ward Seeley, "Radio Relief for the Ailing" (August 1922) 280

92 "Jazzing the Deaf by Radio" (March 1926) 285

Economics of Radio Broadcasting

93 Laurence Blackhurst, "Radio Music Fund Committee Appeals to Listeners-In for Contributions" (1 March 1924) 285

94 "How Much Should Good Radio Program Cost?" (January 1930) 287

Advertising

95 "Radio Broadcast Advertisements; Airphone Advertising Will Kill Fan Interest" (24 June 1922) 288

96 Davey Tree Hour (5 January 1930) 289

97 J. Walter Thompson Company, staff meeting minutes (14 January 1930) 295

98 Martin L. Davey, letter to E. P. H. James (1 September 1931) 296

99 Martin L. Davey, "Secrets of a Successful Radio Program" (1 July 1932) 297

100 Justine Magee, undated fan letter to Martin L. Davey (c. 1930-32) 300

Music on the Radio

Con

101 A. J. M. "Radio Just Another Blight" (31 December 1925) 301

102 Paul Kempf, "Thomas A. Edison Sees a Menace for Music in the Radio" (January 1927) 302

Pro

103 John C. Freund, excerpts from an address broadcast from WJZ (May 1922) 305

104 Lee de Forest, "Opera Audiences of Tomorrow" (5 August 1922) 307

105 "Programs Lauded by Bandmasters" (12 September 1926) 309

What Do Listeners Want?

106 E. F. McDonald Jr., "What We Think the Public Wants" (March 1924) 311

Crooning

107 Floyd Gibbons School of Broadcasting, "How to Train a Singing Voice for Broadcasting" (1932) 316

108 Martha Gellhorn, "Rudy Vallée: God's Gift to Us Girls" (7 August 1929) 316

109 "Cardinal Denounces Crooners as Whiners Defiling the Air" (11 January 1932) 319

110 Whitney Bolton, "Mr. Bolton Queries 'When Was a Crooner a Man in Love?'" (12 January 1932) 320

111 "Crooners Cover Up; Pass Well Known Buck" (13 January 1932) 322

112 "Crooning Comes by Nature" (24 February 1932) 323

Radio behind the Scenes

Getting on the Air

113 James H. Collins, "How to Get on a Radio Program" (February 1925) 324

114 Audition form, National Broadcasting Company (c. 1930) 331

115 Olive Palmer, "Requirements of the Radio Singer" (December 1931) 332

116 Myda Adams, letter to John Royal (11 January 1932) 339

117 "Have You a Radio Voice?" (28 January 1932) 339

Talent

118 Harvey B. Gaul, "The Vicissitudes of a Radio Impresario" (September 1922) 340

Production behind the Scenes

119 Gustav Klemm, "Putting a Program on the Air" (March 1933) 344

120 Herbert Devins, "A Glimpse 'behind the Mike' during the Palmolive Hour" (December 1929) 351

Composing for the Radio

121 Viva Liebling, "Creating Scores for Radio" (20 January 1944) 354

122 Rose Heylbut, "The Background of Background Music" (September 1945) 358

How to Listen to Music on the Radio

123 Peter W. Dykema, "Music as Presented by the Radio" (1935) 361

Notes 367

References 387

Index 399